The MAINSTAY study: Mechanisms of rAcial dIfferences in the relatioNship between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and in vivo Tau deposition in the context of AmYloid burden
This research study is being done to collect information about obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as a potential risk factor that may increase Alzheimer’s disease (AD) burden, particularly in African-Americans, and understand racial differences in markers of AD.
The purpose of this research study is to test if a reduction in depressive symptoms in response to treatment with an antidepressant improves levels of certain proteins which have been associated with increased risk for the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD).
Mechanisms of sleep deficiency and effects on brain injury and neurocognitive functions among older blacks
The purpose of this study is to assess the determinants of Sleep Deficiency and delineate their potential role in explaining observed disparities in the brain health of older blacks, indexed by novel AD brain biomarkers and examinations of cognitive impairment in a multicultural community sample. Eligible participants include community-dwelling older adults aged 55-75 years older with and without memory complaints. Study participants will receive a comprehensive health screening with ambulatory recording devices, including, state-of-the-science geospatial analytics, and testing of cognition.
Millions of Americans have Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Type 2 diabetes (T2D) leads to a near doubling of the risk of dementia and the two conditions share similar brain impairments. Cerebrovascular risk factors may be the link between the two conditions. Thus, understanding the impact of T2D on the brain will be informative for future AD prevention strategies targeting those risk factors. We will test how large weight loss and improvement in the cerebrovascular modifiable factors from bariatric surgery of individuals with T2D leads to brain improvement and how this recovery is tempered by sex, education, and fitness.
(S,S)-[11C]Methylreboxetine ((S,S)-[11C]MRB) is a radioligand developed for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the brain adrenergic receptors. In ongoing clinical studies, 11C-MRB PET is currently being examined to determine whether the tracer has utility in the differential diagnosis and follow-up of Alzheimer’s disease risk and in evaluating the efficacy of preventive therapies. To enable the continued use of 11C-MRB and to confirm safety, it is important to determine the radiation exposure caused by such studies. The use of this tracer has been approved by the FDA since 2005. This tracer has been used for PET imaging of over 500 human studies with no major side effects. Before this tracer can be used in our main study, the dosimetry results need to be analyzed and reported locally prior to the start of the study.
The purpose of this research study is to is to test whether poor slow wave sleep (SWS), the most restful sleep stage, is one of the physiological factors that increase the risk for Alzheimer’s disease among African-Americans when compared to Caucasians (hereafter referred to as ‘whites’). African-Americans (AAs) have a higher risk of both Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease, such as diabetes and high blood pressure, when compared to whites. Sleep characteristics vary between AAs and whites. AAs take longer to fall asleep, have shorter sleep duration, lower sleep quality and less slow wave sleep (SWS) duration than whites. This research study is being done to collect information about sleep as a potential risk factor that may increase Alzheimer’s disease burden particularly in African-Americans.
Age-related sleep changes and common sleep disorders like obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may increase amyloid burden and represent risk factors for cognitive decline. In this study, we will extend our prior work using home-sleep monitoring and cerebrospinal fluid collection in normal older adults by directly interrogating the brain using 2-night nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) and amyloid deposition using C-PiB PET/MR both at baseline and at 24 month follow-up. This study has the potential to identify the mechanisms by which age-related sleep changes contribute to AD neurodegeneration in cognitively normal elderly, of whom can profit the most from sleep preventive strategies.
Investigating the Temperature Dependence of Age-related Tau Pathology Relevant to Early Alzheimer's Disease
The purpose of this study is to assess how day to day patterns in how your body temperature naturally varies over time may contribute to increasing risk for developing Alzheimer’s disease. The study will enroll 120 adults aged between 60–80 years. We will be testing to see whether specific patterns in body temperature, recorded over 2 days, are associated with results from several tests. These tests will include cognitive evaluations, a PET-MR scan, and a blood test. During the two days we measure your body temperature, we will ask you to visit the sleep lab at night to have your sleep assessed, because body temperature and sleep are closely related. We hope to identify the mechanisms by which age-related body temperature and sleep changes contribute to AD neurodegeneration in normal elderly patients, the group that could profit the most from sleep improvement strategies.
Brain Effects of Lifetime Racial/Ethnic Discrimination on the LC-NE Function and the Risk for Alzheimer's Disease
The purpose of our study is to understand how the effects of stress, induced by social factors such as racial discrimination, contribute to an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease among African Americans. When compared to whites, African Americans are at a higher risk of developing Alzheimer's Disease. These differences may be due to social and biological stressors; such as discrimination. One of the major systems in our body that plays a big role in how our body responds to stress is the Brain-Norepinephrine (NE) system. This system is involved in the body’s response to an event seen as stressful or frightening. Continuous stress can cause short-term effects on the Brain-NE system, with reduced ability to concentrate and long-term effects resulting in memory loss. Therefore, the researchers are recruiting black and white individuals to undergo memory testing and brain imaging to further study the differences in how the brain works between the two groups.
The purpose of this study is to see if there is a relationship between energy production in the brain and risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). In healthy cells, the sugars, fats, and proteins we consume are broken down and turned into the energy that allows us to carry on living. This is done in two ways: one way, known as oxidative phosphorylation (or OxPhos), makes more energy, but requires more steps. The other way, known as aerobic glycolysis (or AG), makes less energy, but happens faster, and is useful when the brain or other parts of the body have greater energy demands. While research has shown the consequences of Alzheimer's disease (AD) (deposition of plaques and formation of structures called neurofibrillary tangles in the brain), researchers are still trying to understand the cause. As we learn more about the way the brain makes energy, scientists have questioned whether changes in the brain’s ability to shift from OxPhos to AG to make energy efficiently plays a role in the risk for AD.