Course Descriptions

Courses Offered in the Environmental Health Sciences Program

The courses listed below are generally given during the day at NYU's Washington Square location in Manhattan. Occasionally courses are given at the Research Laboratories for Environmental Medicine at Sterling Forest, Tuxedo, New York (45 miles from midtown Manhattan). Many of the courses are given in alternate years. Current course information and locations are available in the office of the graduate coordinator, 845-731-3561.

The following courses, listed for the various areas of study in the Ph.D. program, are lectures unless otherwise indicated


Advanced Topics in Biostatistics EHSC-GA 2304 (G48.2304)
Advanced Topics in Survival Analysis EHSC-GA 2330 (G48.2330)
Advanced Topics in Data Mining with Applications to Genomics EHSC-GA 2331 (G48.2331)
Biomarker Applications in Humans with Environmental Exposures EHSC-GA 1009 (G48.1009)
Introduction to Biostatistics EHSC-GA 2303 (G48.2303)
Introduction to Survival Analysis EHSC-GA 2047 (G48.2047)
Methods of Applied Statistics and Data Mining with Applications to Biology and Medicine EHSC-GA 2306 (G48.2306)
Methods for the Analysis of Longitudinal Data EHSC-GA 2332 (G48.2332)
Methods for Categorical Data Analysis in Health Sciences Research EHSC-GA 2045 (G48.2045)



Epidemiology of Cancer EHSC-GA 2046 (G48.2046)
Epigenetics and Environmental Diseases EHSC-GA 2050 (G48.2050) [syllabus]
Epidemiologic Methods EHSC-GA 2044 (G48.2044)
Genetic Susceptibility/Toxicogenomics EHSC-GA 2042 (G48.2042)
Global Issues in Environmental Health EHSC-GA 1011 (G48.1011)
Introduction to Epidemiology EHSC-GA 2039 (G48.2039)


Exposure Assessment & Health Effects

Aerosol Science EHSC-GA 2033 (G48.2033) [syllabus]
Biomarker Applications in Humans with Environmental Exposures EHSC-GA 1009 (G48.1009)
Environmental Health EHSC-GA 1004 (G48.1004) [syllabus]
Environmental Hygiene Laboratory I, II EHSC-GA 2037, 2038 (G48.2037, 2038)
Environmental Hygiene Measurements EHSC-GA 2305 (G48.2305)
Radiological Health EHSC-GA 2301 (G48.2301)
Translating Environmental Health Science into Policy EHSC-GA 1013 (G48.1013)  [syllabus]
Global Climate Change, Air Pollution, and Health EHSC-GA 1010 (G48.1010) [syllabus]


Molecular Toxicology/Carcinogenesis

Cell Signaling and Environmental Stress EHSC-GA 2043 (G48.2043) [syllabus]
DNA Replication, Damage, and Repair EHSC-GA 2018 (G48.2018)
Environmental Carcinogenesis EHSC-GA 2309 (G48.2309)
Epigenetics and Environmental Diseases EHSC-GA 2050 (G48.2050) [syllabus]
Genetic Susceptibility/Toxicogenomics EHSC-GA 2042 (G48.2042)
Molecular and Genetic Toxicology EHSC-GA 2040 (G48.2040)
Molecular Toxicology of Metals and Trace Elements EHSC-GA 2307 (G48.2307)



Ecotoxicology: Hudson River Case Study EHSC-GA 1005 (G48.1005)
Environmental Immunotoxicology EHSC-GA 2315 (G48.2315)
Environmental Radioactivity EHSC-GA 2017 (G48.2017)
An Introduction to Toxicogenomics EHSC-GA 1008 (G48.1008)
Organ System Toxicology EHSC-GA 2311 (G48.2311) [syllabus]
Principles of Toxicology EHSC-GA 2310 (G48.2310)
Research Models of Human Environmental Exposures EHSC-GA 2314 (G48.2314) [syllabus]
Terrorism: Chemical, Biological, and Psychological Warfare EHSC-GA 1007 (G48.1007)


Required Courses of all Ph.D. Students

Principles of Toxicology EHSC-GA 2310 (G48.2310) [syllabus] or Toxicology EHSC-GA 1006 (G48.1006)
Environmental Health EHSC-GA 1004 (G48.1004) [syllabus]
Introduction to Biostatistics EHSC-GA 2303 (G48.2303)
Communication Skills for Biomedical Scientists EHSC-GA 2025 (G48.2025) [syllabus]


Course Descriptions


Environmental Health EHSC-GA 1004 (G48.1004)  
Thurston. 4 points.
This course provides a comprehensive introduction to the basic concepts of environmental health, including pollutant sources, their fate, and impacts in environmental media (air, water, food, and soil) and occupational settings. Human hazard recognition and evaluation are presented in terms of toxicology, epidemiology, exposure assessment, and risk assessment, including discussion of recent environmental controversies. Example issues considered in the course include historical and ongoing urban environmental problems in New York City, as well as unfolding environmental challenges in the developing world today. At the completion of this course, students will acquire an awareness of today's environmental hazards with known and possible risks. Students will have a better scientific understanding of how these hazards are formed, their fate and distribution in the environment, and how to assess their potential effects in humans. [syllabus]

Ecotoxicology: Hudson River Case Study EHSC-GA 1005 (G48.1005) 
Prerequisite: undergraduate biology or chemistry, or permission of the instructor.
Wirgin. 4 points.
Ecosystems throughout the country are polluted with a variety of toxic chemicals. This course uses the Hudson River as a model to investigate the sources, transport, transformation, toxic effects, management strategies, and remediation of polluted ecosystems. Over 200 miles of the Hudson River estuary has been designated a U.S. federal Superfund site because of contamination from PCBs, dioxins, and metals. As baseline information, this highly interdisciplinary course initially investigates the geological history of the Hudson River, its hydrology, and inventory of species composition. Those chemical, physical, and biological factors impacting the bioavailability of contaminants to the ecosystem are presented. Efforts to model the trophic transfer of PCBs through the food chain are discussed. Toxic effects (cancer, reproductive disorders, immunological changes, etc.) of these contaminants to Hudson River fish, bird, and mammalian populations are highlighted. Models of resistance of populations to chemical contaminants are explored. Accumulation of toxicants and possible effects on human consumers of Hudson River resources are introduced. Potential beneficial effects of microbial bioremediation strategies are introduced. Problems and issues in the management of Hudson River Superfund sites are discussed by regulatory officials as are the strategies of advocacy groups to remediate these sites. Impacts of remediation of one site on its natural populations are presented.

Toxicology EHSC-GA 1006 (G48.1006)
Not open to students who have taken EHSC-GA 2310 (G48.2310) or BIOL-GA 2310 (G23.2310).
Prerequisite: an introductory course in either biology, physiology, or biochemistry.
Zelikoff. 4 points.
This course is an introduction to the discipline of toxicology and stresses the basic concepts essential for understanding the action of exogenous agents on biological systems. Principles underlying the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of chemicals by experimental animals and humans are presented. Toxic responses of organ systems and the experimental methods used to assess toxicity are discussed, as well as the regulation of toxic substances by governmental agencies. Specific examples of toxic substances in our environment are presented throughout the course.

Terrorism: Chemical, Biological, and Psychological Warfare EHSC-GA 1007 (G48.1007)
Prerequisite: undergraduate course in biological science and/or behavioral science.
Evans. 2 points.
Survey of the agents of terrorism, their immediate effects, long-term consequences, and emerging research questions. Agents of terrorism include chemical weapons, radioactive materials, infectious agents, torture, and ethnic conflict. Long-term consequences include stress disorders, respiratory disorders, and sensitization and conditioned responses to noxious stimuli. Students meet with a broad range of experts for help in dealing with these questions.

An Introduction to Toxicogenomics EHSC-GA 1008 (G48.1008)
Prerequisite: undergraduate or graduate course covering the basics of cell biology or molecular biology, or permission of instructor.
Gunnison. 2 points.
Toxicogenomics is an emerging field of study in which genomic and bioinformatic techniques are utilized to assess the effects of toxicants in our environment on living organisms. As currently practiced, toxicogenomics deals primarily with the measurement and interpretation of global gene and protein expression in response to exposure to xenobiotics. This course begins with a comprehensive presentation of various microarray platforms and describes how they are used to measure global gene expression as mRNA. Various methods of measuring protein expression are also presented, as well as methods of data organization and analysis that are necessary for conversion of the massive volume of information generated by microarray technology into useful knowledge. Examples from the published literature are presented throughout that demonstrate both the principles of microarray technology and the practical applications of toxicogenomics. The latter include the classification of tumors in human subjects and prediction of their response to treatment, the identification of biomarkers of disease, the categorization of toxicants, and the elucidation of mechanisms of toxicity.

Biomarker Applications in Humans with Environmental Exposures EHSC-GA 1009 (G48.1009)
Prerequisite: an introductory course in either biology or biochemistry.
Qu. 4 points.
Application of biomarkers in human populations is a useful approach that incorporates advanced laboratory technology with epidemiology to evaluate the health hazards and risk of exposure to environmental pollutants at low levels. It is increasingly utilized as a tool to understand the interactions between genes and environmental exposures and to identify "at-risk" populations and individuals. This course covers both the basic concepts and the practical issues involved in conducting biomarker studies in human populations with environmental exposures. Topics include the strengths and limitations of biomarker applications, criteria for the selection and validation of commonly used biomarkers, approaches of newly emerging technologies (e.g., proteomics) relevant to discovery and development of new biomarkers, issues of quality control, and ethical considerations in biomarker research. The course also provides students with lectures focusing on specific environmental carcinogens regarding the current findings and future research needs of their biomarker applications.

Global Climate Change, Air Pollution, and Health EHSC-GA 1010 (G48.1010)
Prerequisite: for graduate students, B.S. in biology, chemistry, or an environmental health science-related field; for undergraduate students, chemistry/biology course work with instructor's permission.
Thurston. 4 points.
Global climate change concerns have made clear the need to better understand the interaction of air pollution and weather. This course gives the student an appreciation for the scientific bases for the known effects of weather on air pollution and, conversely, for the known and hypothesized effects of air pollution on weather and climate change, as well as their respective interactions with human health. Lecture topics include the fundamentals of atmospheric motions and weather; air pollution formation and dispersion in the atmosphere; acidic air pollution and acid rain; the health effects of air pollution and of extreme weather; global-scale weather and air pollution; and the effects of air pollution on the ozone layer and climate change.[syllabus]

Global Issues in Environmental Health EHSC-GA 1011 (G48.1011)
Thurston. 4 points.
This course is designed to provide students with an introduction to the key environmental issues confronting international health. The course will cover factors associated with environmental health problems in both the developed and developing world. Students gain an understanding of the interaction of individuals and communities with the environment, the potential impact on health of environmental agents, and specific cases studies introducing concepts of environmental health.
The course consists of a series of weekly lectures, each followed by group discussions of relevant examples from ongoing world events and/or recent developments in global environmental health. The lectures first introduce core principles derived from multiple environmental health disciplines, including toxicology, epidemiology, and risk assessment. The course then covers specific issues in environmental diseases that influence health in the developed and developing worlds (e.g., environmental and health impacts of agribusiness, energy production, as well as infectious and vector-borne diseases such as influenza and malaria). The overall course goal is to illuminate the challenges involved in balancing environmental health considerations in a rapidly growing and developing world.

Translating Environmental Health Science into Policy EHSC-GA 1013 (G48.1013) 
Cromar. 4 points.
The creation and implementation of efficient policies should be one of the primary outcomes of environmental health science research. However, this is often not the case. There is a current need for scientific researchers to assume an increased role in the formation of environmental health policies at every level of government. This course will address issues in bridging this gap between science and policy. As part of this course, students will gain hands-on experience in developing and presenting interdisciplinary scientific research that can be used in informing current and future policies. A sample of the topics covered include: risk assessment, cost-benefit analysis, Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act, international climate change, and PlaNYC 2030. Guest lecturers at the forefront of the intersection of science and policy will speak on current environmental health topics. Students will also learn about future opportunities for continued involvement in informing environmental health policy. [syllabus]

Environmental Radioactivity EHSC-GA 2017 (G48.2017) 
Prerequisite: EHSC-GA 2301 (G48.2301) or permission of the instructor.
Harley. 4 points.
Comprehensive evaluation of the levels, distribution, and variability of radioactivity in the environment. Sources and transport of radionuclides in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Health effects of radioactive pollution from natural sources, nuclear weapons testing, and the nuclear fuel cycle.

DNA Replication, Damage, and Repair EHSC-GA 2018(G48.2018)
Prerequisite: biochemistry or permission of the instructor.
Klein, Tang. 4 points.
The basic processes involved in DNA replication, damage formation, and processing, with an emphasis on eukaryotic cells. Topics include DNA structure and the chemistry of adduct formation, DNA polymerase structure and function, DNA replication mechanisms and fidelity, the enzymology of DNA repair, and mechanisms of mutagenesis.

Communication Skills for Biomedical Scientists EHSC-GA 2025 (G48.2025)
Prerequisite: permission of the instructor.
M. Cohen. 2 points.
Basic principles of effective scientific communication are presented in this course. Lectures and hands-on practice sessions cover (1) poster presentations for scientific meetings, (2) brief verbal presentations, and (3) writing papers for publication in a scientific journal. Students are encouraged to use their own data for the various communication formats. Students are expected to attend and to critique seminars given at Sterling Forest by outside speakers that are sponsored by the Department of Environmental Medicine; these seminars are given on the same day as the class.

Tutorials in Environmental Health Sciences EHSC-GA 2031 (G48.2031)
1-4 points.
Tutorials arranged on an individual basis with a faculty member for the advanced study of special subjects in the environmental health sciences. A brief, written description of the topics being covered must be approved in advance of registering for this tutorial. A comprehensive paper or examination is required.

Aerosol Science EHSC-GA 2033 (G48.2033)
Thurston. 4 points.
Comprehensive introduction to the properties, behavior, and measurement of suspended particles, including background on their underlying physical and chemical characteristics. Presents the properties of ambient atmospheric aerosols and their respiratory deposition. [syllabus]

Environmental Hygiene Measurements EHSC-GA 2035 (G48.2035)
Ito. 4 points.
Instrumentation, procedures, and strategies for quantitative evaluation and control of hazardous exposures. Emphasis is on airborne contaminants, including particles, gases, and bioaerosols, plus physical agents, including ionizing and nonionizing radiations, noise, and abnormal temperatures. Decision-making criteria are considered for each agent, as is the performance of environmental control methods, including ventilation and local exhaust systems.

Environmental Hygiene Laboratory I, II EHSC-GA 2037, 2038 (G48.2037, 2038)
Prerequisites: EHSC-GA 2035 (G48.2035) and permission of the instructor. 
Laboratory and field trips. Ito. 4 points per term.
Covers the instrumental techniques and procedures for the subjects covered in EHSC-GA 2035(G48.2035).

Introduction to Epidemiology EHSC-GA 2039 (G48.2039)
Marmor. 4 points.
Epidemiology, one of the key sciences of public health, is the study of the distribution and determinants of disease in humans. In this course, principles and methods of epidemiology are developed for students intending to conduct independent research on health-related issues. Topics include measures of disease occurrence and risk, designs for observational and interventional studies, sensitivity and specificity of clinical tests, methods for epidemiologic analyses, and ethical issues regarding conduct of epidemiologic studies. Class time is divided among lectures, discussions evaluating classical and current studies that have used epidemiologic methods, and development of projects that form the basis of term papers. Grades are based on class presentations, term papers, pop quizzes, and midterm and final examinations.

Molecular and Genetic Toxicology EHSC-GA 2040 (G48.2040)
Prerequisite: biochemistry or permission of the instructor.
Klein. 4 points.
Analyzes the modes by which organisms handle damage to DNA by physical and chemical agents, the mechanisms of converting damage to mutations, and the theoretical basis for carcinogenesis screening methods utilizing mutagenesis. Topics include systems for mutagenesis testing, mutational spectra, and inducible responses to DNA damage.

Genetic Susceptibility/Toxicogenomics EHSC-GA 2042 (G48.2042)
Klein, Arslan. 4 points. 

Genetic variation at many loci has been described in human and wildlife populations. Recent studies have explored the relationships between this variation and susceptibility to diseases. This course examines the extent of genetic variation in genomes, the techniques by which sensitive genes and allelic variants are identified, and the consequences of genetic variation on phenotypic expression. Emphasis is on the relationship between genetic variation and susceptibility to environmentally induced diseases, such as cancers, through effects on toxicant metabolism, DNA repair, and signal transduction genes. The role of genetic adaptations to resistance of natural populations of wildlife is also presented. In addition, emphasis is on epidemiological techniques used to explore relationships between polymorphisms and disease and the moral and legal ramifications of access to this data.

Cell Signaling and Environmental Stress EHSC-GA 2043 (G48.2043)
Prerequisite: undergraduate biology or biochemistry.
X. Huang, C. Huang. 4 points.
In the last few years, we have gained extensive knowledge of how cell surface receptors transmit signals to the nucleus, thereby controlling the expression of genetic programs involved in many cellular processes, including normal and aberrant cell growth. Signaling motifs (e.g., nuclear transcription receptors, kinase/phosphatase cascades, G-coupled protein receptors, etc.) are components of signaling webs, which are targets of disruption by environmental pollutants. This course covers various signal transduction pathways such as cytokine signaling and signal transduction to the nucleus by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Some of the known detailed mechanisms, such as regulation of MAPK by phosphatases (removal of phosphorylation) and dual phosphorylation of MAPK on the relevant threonine and tyrosine leading to the downstream activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation, are discussed. The course further illustrates that alteration of the pathways by environmental pollutants, such as transition metals and airborne particles, may be implicated in pathological processes, cancer, inflammation, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Students gain a basic understanding of principles emerging in the signaling field and how they serve as guiding tools for students engaged in basic, clinical, and translational medical research.

Epidemiologic Methods EHSC-GA 2044(G48.2044)
Prerequisite: EHSC-GA 2039 (G48.2039) or EHSC-GA 2303 (G48.2303).
Zeleniuch-Jacquotte. 4 points.
Principles introduced in G48.2039 are further developed. Methods to design, analyze, and interpret epidemiologic studies concerned with disease etiology are presented. The main focus is on cohort and case-control studies. Topics include bias, confounding, measurement error, and sample size determination.

Methods for Categorical Data Analysis in Health Sciences Research EHSC-GA 2045 (G48.2045)
Prerequisite: EHSC-GA 2039 (G48.2039), EHSC-GA 2303 (G48.2303), or permission of the instructor.
Shao. 4 points.
Focuses on statistical techniques for the analysis of categorical data, with specific applications to epidemiologic and clinical studies. Methods for the analysis of contingency tables; risk assessment in retrospective and prospective studies; and adjustment for confounding, matching, and effect modification are discussed. Analytic techniques include Mantel-Haenszel summary chi-square procedures, logistic regression, and log-linear models.

Epidemiology of Cancer EHSC-GA 2046 (G48.2046)
Prerequisite: EHSC-GA 2039 (G48.2039), college-level biology, or permission of the instructor.
Arslan. 4 points.
The epidemiology of cancer in its biological context and illustration of how it could be used in the search for cancer etiology and control. Role of viruses, radiation, nutrition, hormones, tobacco, occupational exposures, and genetic factors in the causation of cancer. Strategies for exposure and risk assessment and for cancer control, including screening. Issues of study design and statistical analysis in cancer epidemiology.

Introduction to Survival Analysis EHSC-GA 2047 (G48.2047)
Prerequisites: EHSC-GA 2303 (G48.2303) or basic statistics course, and the permission of the instructor.
Goldberg. 4 points.
This course reviews the basic concept of survival analysis, including hazard functions, survival functions, types of censoring, Kaplan-Meier estimates, and log-rank tests. Parametric inference includes the Exponential and Weibull distribution. The proportional hazard model and its extension to time-dependent covariates are included. Additional topics include accelerated failure time model, competing risks and multistate models. Recurrent event data are also clinical and epidemiological examples used to illustrate the various statistical procedures.

Epigenetics and Environmental Diseases EHSC-GA 2050 (G48.2050)
Prerequisites: Biochemistry, cell biology or permission of the instructor.
Costa and Klein. 4 points
It has become increasingly evident that the epigenome plays an enormous role in modulating the responses of organisms to environmental exposures. The effects of the environment on gene expression can arise via mechanisms involving, but not limited to, DNA methylation, histone modifications and micro RNA mechanisms. The course will provide students with a basic understanding of epigenetic modifications, and will cover methods of analyzing DNA methylaton and histone changes in the epigenome. Both candidate gene approaches to examining epigenetic effects, as well as genome-wide histone modification analyses (ChIP-Seq) and whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) methods will be covered. The epigenetic outcomes of exposure to specific environmental stressors such as metals, other carcinogens, air pollution particulates, and diet will be considered. Multigeneration epigenetic effects and imprinting will also be discussed. Lastly, epigenetic biomarkers and targets for disease preventive and therapeutic interventions will be explored.

Radiological Health EHSC-GA 2301 (G48.2301) 
Harley. 4 points.

Introduction to the physical and biological processes of radioactivity and health effects from radiation exposure. Current principles and philosophies of radiation protection, with reference to the commercial and medical use of radionuclides and electrical sources of radiation.

Introduction to Biostatistics EHSC-GA 2303 (G48.2303)
Lobach, Oh. 4 points.

Introduction to probability and statistical methods utilized in the analysis and interpretation of experimental and epidemiological data. Statistical techniques associated with the normal, binomial, Poisson, t, F, and chi-squared distributions plus an introduction to nonparametric methods. Applications in biology, medicine, and the health sciences.

Advanced Topics in Biostatistics EHSC-GA 2304 (G48.2304)
Prerequisites: EHSC-GA 2303 (G48.2303) or equivalent background in statistics, and permission of the instructor.
Goldberg. 4 points.
Introduction to statistical methods used in medicine and biology. Topics are selected from the following: survival methods, logistic regression methods, design of experiments, longitudinal data methods, missing data methods, statistical genetics, analysis of gene chip data, and other topics depending on the interests of the participants. Case studies are used to illustrate the methods. Students are required to submit a project.

Methods of Applied Statistics and Data Mining with Applications to Biology and Medicine EHSC-GA 2306 (G48.2306)
Prerequisites: basic statistics course; some programming experience or willingness to learn. Prior familiarity with R or S-plus is not required.
Belitskaya-Levy. 4 points.
Survey of applied statistical and data mining methods, including principles, applications, and computational tools. Emphasis is on conceptual understanding and data analysis using the R or S-plus statistical programming language. Topics may vary and include cluster analysis, multidimensional scaling, principal components analysis, resampling methods (e.g., the bootstrap), linear methods for classification and regression, model selection, bias-variance trade-off, modern classification and regression, tree-based methods, randomization, and nonparametric statistics.

Molecular Toxicology of Metals and Trace Elements EHSC-GA 2307 (G48.2307)
Costa. 4 points.

Metals represent serious and persistent environmental contaminants. This course describes the source of this contamination and examines the toxic effects of metals such as mercury, cadmium, arsenic, lead, vanadium, nickel, beryllium, cobalt, aluminum, chromate, selenium, and others. Each metal is considered with regard to its major toxic action. Mechanisms are emphasized.

Environmental Carcinogenesis EHSC-GA 2309 (G48.2309)
Burns, Dai. 4 points.

Introductory course that emphasizes current understandings of how environmental agents contribute to human cancer. The approach integrates information from human and experimental animal studies at the population, cellular, and molecular levels. Emphasis is on the basic mechanisms of cancer causation and how these understandings help to mitigate or prevent the disease.

Principles of Toxicology EHSC-GA 2310 (G48.2310)
Prerequisites: biochemistry and cell biology, or permission of the instructor.
Chen. 4 points.
Broad introduction to the science of toxicology, stressing basic concepts essential to the understanding of the action of exogenous chemical agents on biological systems. Principles underlying the absorption, metabolism, and elimination of chemicals are discussed. Toxicokinetics, specific classes of toxic responses, and experimental methods used to assess toxicity are reviewed.

Organ System Toxicology EHSC-GA 2311 (G48.2311)
Prerequisite: EHSC-GA 2310 (G48.2310), EHSC-GA 1006 (G48.1006). or permission of the instructor.
Zelikoff. 4 points.
Overview of the types of injury that may be produced in specific mammalian organs and organ systems by exposure to chemical toxicants.

Research Models of Human Environmental Exposures EHSC-GA 2314 (G48.2314) 
Prerequisite: graduate course in biology or biochemistry; open to advanced undergraduate students. 
Grunig. 2 points.
The students should learn about animal models of diseases that are strongly influenced by the environment. The course should help the students understand the powerful significance that animal models can have for the molecular understanding of disease processes and for the development of new drugs and recommendations for environmental protection as well as the limitations of these models. In addition, the course should also give a glimpse of cutting edge research performed with animal models. Finally, the course will address ethical issues associated with animal studies.

Environmental Immunotoxicology EHSC-GA 2315 (G48.2315)
Prerequisite: general biology, EHSC-GA 2310 (G48.2310), EHSC-GA 1006 (G48.1006), or permission of the instructor.
Zelikoff, M. Cohen. 4 points.
Overview of the components and functions of the immune system in order to set the stage for a discussion of how toxicants impact the immune response and alter host susceptibility to disease. Provides students with the opportunity to investigate and discuss a relevant topic in the field of immunotoxicology.

Advanced Topics in Survival Analysis EHSC-GA 2330 (G48.2330)
Prerequisites: advanced training in biostatistics and statistical methods and permission of the instructor.
Seminar. Goldberg, Tseng. 2 points.
This course provides advanced topics in survival analysis in a seminar setting. The course includes a review of basic concepts followed by in-depth study of advanced methods. These methods include study of survival models with particular reference to time-dependent models, missing data, interval-censored data, recurrent event and multiple endpoints. Particular is given to interim analyses in the context of survival models in clinical trials. Bayesian approaches are also considered. Issues of survival analysis in observational data are also included. Readings include seminal research papers in survival analysis.

Advanced Topics in Data Mining with Applications to Genomics EHSC-GA 2331 (G48.2331)
Prerequisites: advanced training in biostatics and statistical methods, and permission of the instructor.
Seminar. Belitskaya-Levy. 2 points.
This course introduces, illustrates, and evaluates a variety of statistical data mining methods employed in the context of large-scale genomic experiments, with an emphasis on applications to DNA microarrays. Techniques covered correspond to commonly encountered research questions and study designs. Topics may vary and include preprocessing/normalization of expression array data, exploratory data analysis, hypothesis testing, linear models, clustering, discrimination, prediction, and bootstrap methods. The course features extensive discussion and illustration of data mining techniques covered in the text The Elements of Statistical Learning, by Hastie et al. (Springer, 2001), and associated computational tools and resources. A brief overview of micro-array technology is included, as is discussion of recent array-related developments and extensions.

Methods for the Analysis of Longitudinal Data EHSC-GA 2332 (G48.2332)
Prerequisites: some background in biostatistics and statistical methods; basic knowledge of matrix algebra, random vectors, multivariate normal distribution, and regression methods; and permission of the instructor.
Seminar. Liu. 2 points.
This course covers statistical methods for analyzing longitudinal data, which mainly are collected in the form of repeated measurements over time. Topics include the linear model for longitudinal continuous data (e.g., multivariate normal model and mixed-effects models) and methods for analyzing longitudinal categorical data in the form of counts and binary data (e.g., generalized linear model and generalized estimating equations). Dropouts, missing mechanisms, and semiparametric methods are also discussed, with emphasis on newly proposed methods in the literature.



Note: There are a wide range of courses that are offered in the Biology Department and in the Sackler Basic Medical Sciences Program (see NYU Bulletin). In addition, full-time doctoral students who have completed one year of study can take courses at distinguished universities throughout the New York area as part of the Inter-University Doctoral Consortium.