Course Descriptions

First Year

The Department of Radiology participates in the Anatomy course by providing a mixture of lectures, small group case-based sessions, demonstrations and participating in hands-on ultrasound workshops.  Small-group sessions are focused on the chest, abdomen, pelvis, skull & orbit, head & neck and musculoskeletal system. There is an emphasis on normal plain film and cross-sectional anatomy. Imaging studies are integrated with the case-based modules covered during the laboratory session. Common pathologic processes are introduced and compared to normal studies.
On-line snippet videos of sentinel radiographic imaging accompany each laboratory resource.
Current efforts are focused on
1.    Providing cine and multi-planar imaging of cross sectional image datasets on student
iPad devices using DICOM viewer software.
2.    Standardizing lecture and small group teaching materials format
3.    Providing a robust question database to assist students in exam preparation.

Second Year

A series on on-line narrated modules reviewing normal radiographic anatomy and common disease entities are available as companions for the CPM modules and neurology clerkship.

The Department of Radiology participates in the clerkship orientation. Large group introductory lectures are provided in addition to 90-minute small group sessions. There is an emphasis on the approach to chest and abdomen imaging, including standard radiography and cross-sectional body imaging. Imaging studies are integrated with normal and proven pathology images, including both gross and microscopic specimens. Common pathologic processes are part of the problem-solving exercises. This is organized as problem-solving laboratory sessions in a small-group learning format.

Selective

Title: Diagnostic Radiology (Selective)
Course Director: Maria Shiau, M.D.
Description:
This is a four week selective offered to all medical students who have completed the 18 month core curriculum as an introduction to diagnostic imaging and invasive radiologic procedures. The program offers a survey of general radiology and radiologic subspecialties with a series of didactic sessions given by the faculty. The course is highly structured occupying the day from 7:30 AM until 4:00 PM. The mornings are directed to clinical rotations where the student can observe patient examinations, the working interpretive sessions and the interface of radiology with the referral services. At 12:00 PM there is a daily lecture for the students covering the multi-specialties of radiology. The afternoon is structured in learning formats of small group exercises, problem based learning, diagnostic algorithms, and cases for student work-up.
Objectives of the Selective:
The general radiology selective is structured to provide an overview of the breadth of diagnostic imaging, invasive radiology and an introduction to the fundamentals of diagnostic radiology. The objectives of the general diagnostic radiology selective are as follows:
1.    The medical student will develop an appreciation of the complexity of diagnostic imaging including an understanding of the types of available and the information they can provide. The students will also gain an understanding of the clinical indications for obtaining studies, the relative risk/benefit of radiologic procedures and the basic technical aspects of how examinations are performed. They will also again insight into the diagnostic limitations of imaging studies and how these parameters affect patient care. The student will see hundreds of imaging studies. It is not the purpose of the program to train students as skilled interpreters of imaging studies. A familiarity will be established, but directed to the use of the technologies.
2.    The student will develop an understanding of the differences between, each of the imaging specialties and the operation of these radiologic subspecialties in the context of patient care.

Electives

Abdominal Imaging

This two-week course is intended for students who plan a career in radiology, medicine, or surgery and its subspecialties. The student is instructed in the fundamentals of abdominal imaging and participates in reading sessions and departmental and interdepartmental conferences. The varied rotations are tailored for the individual student’s educational goals. The objective of this elective is to offer the student an opportunity to observe how radiology contributes to patient care. It is hoped that the student acquires an appreciation for the various imaging modalities and their application to the evaluation of abdominal disease. At the end of the course, the student is expected to give a 10-15 minute PowerPoint presentation on an interesting topic that the student observed while on the rotation.

Musculoskeletal Radiology

This elective is geared toward students who are planning a career in radiology, orthopedics, or rheumatology. The student learns how imaging is incorporated into the workup of the orthopedic patient. The student is considered part of the musculoskeletal radiology section, spending most of the time learning the basic approach to the interpretation of plain films, and is expected to participate in all departmental and interdepartmental conferences. Emphasis is placed on the common forms of musculoskeletal pathology, including fractures and dislocations, arthritis, spinal disorders, and the postoperative patient. The student receives a basic introduction to the principles and use of computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear medicine in orthopedic radiology. Time permitting, the student has an opportunity to observe several imaging-guided procedures and learn about the role of the radiologist as an interventionalist.

Emergency Room (ER) Radiology

This rotation in the Bellevue Hospital Center ER introduces the medical student to plain-film diagnosis of traumatic and non-traumatic emergencies. There is an in-depth discussion of the detection and description of fractures, including the mechanics of skeletal trauma. The student learns appropriate imaging in the acute setting and is exposed to a wide breadth of radiology cases across all modalities. The radiologic presentation of emergent medical diseases including heart failure, pneumonia, acute abdomen and central nervous system diseases are reviewed as to the appropriate imaging work-up, including plain film radiography, CT, ultrasound and MRI. The student will have the opportunity to observe the imaging algorithm of trauma patients as they enter the hospital and gain a better understanding of the impact of the radiologist in the trauma setting. The student is expected to participate in all image review sessions and to attend all relevant lectures. Upon completion of the elective, the student should have a better understanding of the vital role of diagnostic imaging in establishing the correct diagnosis and treatment of the injured/critically ill patient.

Neuroradiology

This elective is intended for students who plan a career in radiology or in one of the neurologic sciences. The student participates in reading sessions and conferences associated with the neuroradiology section and receives instruction in some of the basic aspects of neurologic imaging, including anatomy of the brain and spinal cord as shown by CT and MRI, and diagnosis of diseases and abnormalities of the central nervous system.

Nuclear Medicine

This course is intended for students who plan a career in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine, internal medicine, or pathology, but may be of interest to those who are pursuing neurology, neurosurgery, oncology, or oncologic surgery. This course provides exposure to all of the clinical activities related to nuclear medicine diagnostics and therapy, including PET/CT. In addition to observation of general reading of nuclear medicine and PET/CT studies, the student will be exposed to the thyroid clinic, interdisciplinary tumor boards, departmental case conferences and journal club.

Pediatric Radiology

This course is intended for students who plan a career in radiology, pediatrics, or pediatric surgery. The student is instructed in the fundamentals of pediatric radiology and participates in the reading sessions and departmental and interdepartmental conferences. The objective of this elective is to offer the student an opportunity to observe how pediatric radiology contributes to patient care. It is hoped that the student acquires an appreciation for the various imaging modalities and their application to children.

Thoracic Imaging

This course is intended for students who plan a career in diagnostic radiology, medicine, or surgery. Students are instructed in the fundamentals of thoracic imaging and participate in clinical image interpretation sessions in addition to attending departmental and interdepartmental conferences. The objective of this elective is to improve the student’s understanding of the role of thoracic imaging in patient care, focusing on the strengths and appropriate utilizations of various diagnostic modalities for the evaluation of diseases of the chest. Particular emphasis is directed toward standard and high-resolution chest CT.  When possible, interpretation of conventional chest radiographs is correlated with CT.

Vascular and Interventional Radiology

This course provides the student with greater insight into the spectrum of image-guided, minimally invasive procedures in vascular and interventional radiology. These include arterial, venous, oncologic, hepatobiliary, genitourinary, and other organ interventions and the fundamental roles of these therapies in patient care. The student participates in the daily functioning of the interventional radiology section, including patient office consultations, bedside rounds, patient evaluation, interdisciplinary conferences, didactic teaching sessions, and extensive hands-on experience during simple and complex interventional cases. The student also receives training in basic principles of angiographic anatomy and imaging and patient management.

Education

The elective is offered to all third- and fourth-year medical students. The student participates with faculty members in varied general and specialty disciplines. The projects may be in formal instructional materials, information technology (IT) as applied to radiology, or in learning formats at whole-class, small-group, or individual levels. The student may be assigned to create, develop, and edit Web-based instructional materials. The course director decides on the subject area based on the background and skills of the student and the educational goals of the department.
The elective is intended to develop and amplify the skills of the student in learning the varied formats of instructional programs. The student develops an understanding of the various learning methods, including formal lectures, small-group learning, problem-solving exercises, outsourced resources such as dedicated imaging Web sites, and information retention assessment and testing. The student becomes skilled in the use of computer-based techniques such as PowerPoint, computer-assisted design, and the picture archive and communication system (PACS) resources of the clinical care sites.

Research

This elective is offered to all third- and fourth-year medical students. The student is assigned to a faculty mentor for guidance. The subject area is decided by the faculty mentor and the student to integrate the background education of the student with the goals to be achieved.

The elective is intended to develop and amplify the skills of the student in hypothesis-driven research. The student develops an understanding of the various steps involved in formulating and implementing such research protocols, including study design, responsible conduct of research and informed consent, data collection and analysis, and interpretation of results.